What was the largest caliphate?
Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 5.17 million square miles (13,400,000 km2), making it the largest empire the world had yet seen and the sixth-largest ever to exist in history.
Who is caliph Abd al-Malik?
ʿAbd al-Malik, in full ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān, (born 646/647, Medina, Arabia—died October 705, Damascus), fifth caliph (685–705 ce) of the Umayyad Arab dynasty centred in Damascus. He reorganized and strengthened governmental administration and, throughout the empire, adopted Arabic as the language of administration.
Did Abd al Malik invent Islam?
Born in Mecca and raised in Medina, the two most holy sites of Islam, the fifth caliph, Abd Al Malik Ibn Marwan, spearheaded the creation of many of the institutions that centralized the Islamic empire around his capital in Damascus and asserted its independence from Byzantine traditions.
Who was the 4th Caliph of Umayyad dynasty?
Marwan ibn al-Hakam ibn Abi al-As ibn Umayya ( Arabic: مروان بن الحكم بن أبي العاص بن أمية , romanized : Marwān ibn al-Ḥakam ibn Abī al-ʿAs ibn Umayya ), commonly known as Marwan I (ca. 623–626 – April/May 685) was the fourth Umayyad caliph, ruling for less than a year in 684–685.
Was Marwan the caliph a good leader?
Although Marwan was stigmatized as an outlaw and a father of tyrants in later anti-Umayyad tradition, the historian Clifford E. Bosworth asserts that the caliph was a shrewd, capable, and decisive military leader and statesman who laid the foundations of continued Umayyad rule for a further sixty-five years.
What is the name of the 4th caliphs?
Marwan I. Marwan ibn al-Hakam ibn Abi al-As ibn Umayya (Arabic: مروان بن الحكم بن أبي العاص بن أمية, romanized: Marwān ibn al-Ḥakam ibn Abī al-ʿAs ibn Umayya), commonly known as Marwan I (ca. 623–626 — April/May 685) was the fourth caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. Marwan knew Muhammad and is thus counted among the latter’s ṣaḥāba (companions).
Who was the 3rd Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate?
The third caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), was also a member of the Umayyad clan. The family established dynastic, hereditary rule with Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of al-Sham (Greater Syria), who became the sixth caliph after the end of the First Fitna in 661.