What is the function of the ICOS in t cells?

ICOS (CD278) is an inducible costimulatory molecule expressed mainly on activated CD4+ T-cells following activation. It binds to an ICOS ligand expressed by B-cells, macrophages, and DCs. Its function is clearly costimulatory for T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion.

Do B cells express ICOS?

Objective: Inducible costimulator (ICOS)-ICOSL interactions are necessary for activation of Teff cells and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. ICOSL is expressed on B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells and can be induced on nonhematopoietic cells.

What is the role of TFH cells in lymph node?

Tfh cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells that function in the lymph node (LN) and spleen to promote survival, affinity maturation, and class switch recombination of B cells (1, 2).

What cytokines do TFH cells secrete?

Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which are canonical type 2 cytokines produced by TH2 cells, prominently mediate the development of asthma and airway inflammation, manifesting as enhanced IgE-mediated sensitization, airway hyperreactivity (AHR), as well as eosinophil infiltration (1, 10).

What produces CTLA-4?

CTLA-4 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed by activated T cells and transmits an inhibitory signal to T cells. CTLA-4 is homologous to the T-cell co-stimulatory protein, CD28, and both molecules bind to CD80 and CD86, also called B7-1 and B7-2 respectively, on antigen-presenting cells.

What is ICOS deficiency?

ICOS (inducible costimulator) deficiency was the first described monogenetic cause for common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) [1]. ICOS deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder. Affected patients show an antibody deficiency and are therefore prone to recurrent bacterial infections.

What is TIM3?

Abstract. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM3), a member of the TIM family, was originally identified as a receptor expressed on interferon-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

What does CTLA-4 do in T cells?

A protein found on T cells (a type of immune cell) that helps keep the body’s immune responses in check. When CTLA-4 is bound to another protein called B7, it helps keep T cells from killing other cells, including cancer cells.