## How do you calculate the efficiency of an internal combustion engine?

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## Which is more efficient internal or external combustion engine?

The internal combustion engine has an efficiency of about 35-45 %. As compared to the external combustion engine has an efficiency of about 15-25 %. The Fuel cost of the internal combustion engine is relatively high.

Why are internal combustion engines more efficient than external?

In IC engines, the combustion of fuel takes place inside, whereas in EC engines the fuel combustion takes place outside the cylinder. The advantages of IC engine are higher BTE, more horsepower developed per unit weight and low cost compared to that of external combustion engine.

### What is volumetric efficiency formula?

The volumetric efficiency ηv [-] is defined as the ratio between the actual (measured) volume of intake air Va [m3] drawn into the cylinder/engine and the theoretical volume of the engine/cylinder Vd [m3], during the intake engine cycle. ηv = Va / Vd.

### How is Otto cycle efficiency calculated?

Efficiency of Otto and Diesel engines vs compression ratios. (3.17) η = 1 – r 1 – γ r c γ – 1 γ ( r c – 1 ) , where r c ≡ V 3 ′ / V 2 (Figure 3.8) is called the cutoff ratio and is the expansion ratio during the combustion period.

What is the main difference between internal and external combustion engines?

The difference between external and internal combustion engines is quite straightforward and is made obvious by the difference in their names. In an external combustion engine, the fuel isn’t burned inside the engine. With an internal combustion engine, the combustion chamber lies right in the middle of the engine.

#### Why don’t we use steam engines for cars anymore?

Once the electric starter motor debuted in 1912, steam-powered cars all but vanished. For a start, internal combustion engines produce a lot of pollution and tend to be rather noisy. Conversely, steam engines are relatively clean, very quiet and, unlike combustion engines, can run on almost any fuel that produces heat.

#### What is the maximum efficiency of an internal combustion engine?

For example, advanced internal combustion engines found in modern automobiles have peak thermal efficiencies around 35-40% for gasoline and 40-45% for diesel. Massive marine diesel engines are capable of thermal efficiencies over 60%, however, these engines are exceptional in this regard.

Which engine has highest efficiency?

The steam turbine is the most efficient steam engine and for this reason is universally used for electrical generation. Steam expansion in a turbine is nearly continuous, which makes a turbine comparable to a very large number of expansion stages.

## How do you calculate maximum efficiency?

The hot and cold reservoir temperatures are given as 300ºC and 27.0ºC, respectively. In kelvins, then, Th = 573 K and Tc = 300 K, so that the maximum efficiency is EffC=1−TcTh E f f C = 1 − T c T h .

## What is the difference between internal and external combustion engine?

The internal combustion engine has an efficiency of about 35-45 %. As compared to the external combustion engine has an efficiency of about 15-25 %. The Fuel cost of the internal combustion engine is relatively high. As compared to the fuel cost of the external combustion engine is relatively low.

How is the efficiency of a combustion engine measured?

The efficiency of a combustion engine is measured as the sum of thermal efficiency. Thermal efficiency is a consequence of thermodynamics. There is both a definition and a formula for thermal efficiency. According to LearnThermo.com, “Thermal efficiency is a measure of the performance of a power cycle or heat engine.”

### Why is the thermal efficiency of a combustion engine low?

Additionally, a huge portion of the energy produced by a combustion engine simply blows out the exhaust, again, never becoming mechanical energy. The greater the difference in temperature between a fuel’s combustion temperature and that of its surroundings, the lower the thermal efficiency of an engine.

### Is it possible to improve the combustion efficiency of diesel engines?

Particularly with heavy fuels with high-energy densities — diesel, fuel oil, bunker fuel, etc. — there are technologies available that make it possible to improve combustion efficiency dramatically.