Does IL-6 activate macrophages?

Our results identify IL-6 as a regulator of the alternative activation of macrophages during inflammatory conditions such as obesity and endotoxemia.

What interleukin attracts macrophages?

Classically activated macrophages produce high levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and modest levels of IL-10.

What triggers IL-6 production?

Interleukin 6 (IL-6), promptly and transiently produced in response to infections and tissue injuries, contributes to host defense through the stimulation of acute phase responses, hematopoiesis, and immune reactions.

Is interleukin 6 anti-inflammatory?

► The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) has pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. ► Whereas only few cells express the IL-6 receptor and respond to IL-6 (classic signaling), all cells can be stimulated via a soluble IL-6 receptor (trans-signaling) since gp130 is ubiquitously expressed.

Is IL-6 proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory?

IL-6 exhibits two contrasting features. In models of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as collagen-induced arthritis, murine colitis, or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, IL-6 is proinflammatory [28, 29], whereas in models of acute inflammation IL-6 exhibits an anti-inflammatory profile [10].

What activates a macrophage?

Macrophages are activated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) from various sources – including activated NK cells or T cells – or by non-immunologic stimuli such as endotoxin.

Is IL-6 innate or adaptive?

In particular, IL-6 plays an important role in mediating innate and adaptive immune responses. Many innate immune cells—neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages—produce and respond to IL-6, which can result in the amplification of inflammation and a switch from an acute to a chronic inflammatory state.

What is the IL-6 pathway?

IL-6 (Interleukin-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that not only affects the immune system, but also acts in other biological systems and many physiological events in various organs, including inflammation, hematopoiesis, and oncogenesis by regulating cell growth, as well as gene activation, proliferation, survival, and …

Can anti-IL6 inhibition enhance the effects of M1-type macrophages on HCC cells?

The inhibition of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway mediated by anti-IL6 was shown to significantly enhance the effects of M1-type macrophages on HCC cells and rescue HCC cells from co-culture with M2-type macrophages.

Can lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages be induced by Il-6/STAT3 inhibition?

After anti-IL-6-treated macrophages were separately induced by lipopolysaccharide and IL-4, we found that the inhibition of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway turned macrophages into M1-type. Co-culture with M1-type macrophages reduced HCC cell viability, proliferation, invasion, migration, drug resistance, but increased apoptosis.

What are M1 macrophages and how are they induced?

In brief, M1 macrophages can be induced by IFN-γ, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TNF-α or granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), followed by activation of Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. They play a positive role in the removal of pathogens and tumor cells.

What is the role of IL-6 in Trypanosoma cruzi?

IL-6 promotes M2 macrophage polarization by modulating purinergic signaling and regulates the lethal release of nitric oxide during Trypanosoma cruzi infection A novel mechanism of nitric oxide regulation exerted by IL-6 is proposed. IL-6 regulates excessive oxidative stress through IL-1β inhibition.