Which type of spores are produced by Sclerotium rolfsii?

A. rolfsii produces basidia on an exposed hymenium and basidia produce four haploid basidiospores. The appressed hymenium develops in small, thin, irregular patches. The clavate basidia are 4 to 6 µm x 7 to 14 µm; basidiospores are hyline, 1.0 to 5 µm x 5 to 12 µm.

How do you get rid of Southern blight?

Soil Treatment. Treating the soil with heat (including solarization), fungicides or fumigants, cultural manipulations, organic amendments, fertilizers, or biological treatments may help to control southern blight. Heat.

How do you control Sclerotium rolfsii?

Management systems that can reduce the disease severity include the following:

  1. Ensure plant residues have decomposed before planting.
  2. Deep ploughing soil to bury host debris and sclerotia is a useful measure.
  3. Include non-susceptible crops such as maize and small grains in rotations to reduce inoculum levels in soil.

What causes Southern blight?

Southern blight is caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii, which lives in soil, on plants (including weeds), and in plant debris. The fungus can be spread through movement of infested soil and plant debris, on infected plants, in contaminated irrigation water, and through use of contaminated tools.

What fungi produce sclerotia?

Examples of fungi that form sclerotia are ergot (Claviceps purpurea), Polyporus tuberaster, Psilocybe mexicana, Sclerotium delphinii and many species in Sclerotiniaceae. Although not fungal, the plasmodium of slime molds can form sclerotia in adverse environmental conditions.

Where do we get Sclerotium?

Size varies from a few cells to many; sometimes masses up to 10 cm (4 inches) are formed. The sclerotia of Rhizoctonia are common on potato tubers. The sclerotia of ergot (q.v.) are poisonous to animals, including humans.

How do you get rid of blight in soil?

Blight is a general term for several kinds of fungal diseases. Each one affects only certain plant species. The treatments include planting disease-resistant varieties, removing diseased leaves, inoculating the soil with beneficial fungi that attack the disease-causing fungi and spraying fungicides.

What plants are immune to Southern blight?

Ornamental grasses, woody plants, wheat and corn are reported to be resistant to Southern blight and are among the better rotational crops for commercial growers.

Is Southern blight a fungus?

Southern blight, also called southern wilt, southern stem rot, southern root rot and other names, results from infection by the soilborne fungus Sclerotium rolfsii. The fungus survives in the soil as small (0.04–0.08 inch), tan to brown, round sclerotia.

What causes charcoal rot in soybeans?

Charcoal rot is caused by the soilborne fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. This pathogen has a wide host range that includes corn, sunflower, and some weeds. The fungus overwinters in residue of host tissues and can survive for at least two years in dry soil. The pathogen can be spread by contaminated seed and soil.

How do you identify Southern blight?

Look for sudden wilting, the death of stems, and yellowing leaves, which will stay on the tree. These symptoms typically manifest in the heat of the summer. Your tree’s stems may turn brown and die near the soil line. A telltale sign is the web of white mycelia on top of the soil and the lower stem or trunk.

What is Sclerotium rolfsii?

Sclerotium rolfsii is a soilborne fungal plant pathogen widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions that attacks the base of the plant stem and nearby soil. At the final stage of infection, the disruption of water and nutrient transportation by the pathogen leads to plant death ( Gao, 2010 ).

What is the scientific name of Athelia rolfsii?

Preferred Scientific Name. Athelia rolfsii. Preferred Common Name. sclerotium rot. Taxonomic Tree. Domain: Eukaryota. Kingdom: Fungi. Phylum: Basidiomycota.

What are the characteristics of sclerotia?

Mature sclerotia are hard, slightly pitted, and have a distinct rind. Although most sclerotia are spherical, some are slightly flattened or coalesce with others to form an irregular sclerotium. S. rolfsii does not form asexual fruiting structures or spores.

How do sclerotia survive without a host?

Sclerotia are known to survive several years in the absence of a host. The extremely broad host range of S. rolfsii also contributes to long-term survival between host crops. S. rolfsii thrives in highly aerobic environments and thus survives best near the soil surface.