Which fungi produces Penicilic acid?

Penicillic acid (82 in Figure 17) is a toxic compound produced by many Penicillum and some Aspergillus species.

How are mycotoxins detected?

Testing for mycotoxins in humans is a simple and usually noninvasive procedure. In most cases, only a urine sample is required. Testing can also be done on nasal secretions, sputum or tissue biopsy collected by a physician.

How do you test mycotoxins in feed?

The most common methods used for mycotoxin analysis are chromatographic systems coupled with highly sensitive detection systems such as liquid chromatography (LC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence (FL), ultraviolet (UV), or mass spectrometry (MS) detectors.

Is Penicillium Saprophytic or parasitic?

Penicillium belongs to the ascomycetes group of fungi which feed on dead and decay material, they produce mycotoxins which cause food poisoning. Hence, all these share the same type of mode of nutrition which is the Saprophytic mode as all of them feed on decay and dead source. The correct option is B) Saprophytic.

Is there a blood test for mycotoxins?

The most accurate testing for mycotoxin exposure is by blood serum antibody testing for 12 different mycotoxins by far. Urine testing doesn’t test for as many mycotoxins nor is it precise, as urine is a body excretion, like sweat and stools.

What kind of analysis would be used for detecting mycotoxins in food?

Chromatographic techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with various detectors like fluorescence, diode array, UV, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, have been powerful tools for analyzing and detecting major mycotoxins.

What foods have mycotoxins?

Mycotoxins appear in almost all kinds of animal feed and products such as wheat bran, noug cake, pea hulls, maize grain, milk and meat, and also human food such as cereal, fruit and vegetables, spice, etc. [5]. Consuming these foods creates serious health risks in human and all animal species.